Biotic environment

Biotic environment:

According to the standard sheet, 90% of the area is covered with forests the rest of 10% is composed of alpine pastures, hay fields and wooded pastures. The majority of the forest fund is owned by Breţcu Commune, Tg. Secuiesc City, the Compossessorates Iaroș Ojdula, Hilib, Breţcu, Hătuica, Mărtunuş, the Kosta Breţcu Association and the individuals from the neighboring communes.

 

Ecosystems, habitats and species with community importance: given the altitude and climatic conditions, the vegetation characteristic of the territory is that of the forestwith mountain and subalpine meadows. The deciduous and mixed forests occupy mainly the eastern half of the territory, with average altitudes below 1500 m, consisting predominantly of beech, sometimes associated with maple, hornbeam, fescue, birch and more rarely with the oak, the mountain elm or the black, white or mountain alder. At the upper edge of these forests, the hardwoods appear in combination with spruce or fir. The grassy layer of the forests consists of shrubs, thimble, common fern and earth moss. Around the sheepfold there are the rocks and the stigmata, and in the wetter places grow sedge, hooves and other moisture-loving species. Subalpine pastures are made up of horsetail and blueberries. Habitats protected at European level are in good conservation status and are represented by Luzulo-Fagetum beech forests, Asperulo-Fagetum beech forests, acidic forests of Picea abies in the mountain region, Dacian beech forests Symphyto-Fagion and alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior, the last one being a priority habitat for conservation.

 

Types of habitats with community interest

9110 Luzulo – Fagetum beech forests: It lies at altitudes between 850-1400 m. The tree layer consists of spruce, beech, fir in various proportions, with rare specimens of birch, mountain ash. The layer of shrubs: with rare specimens of Ribes uva-crispa, Lonicera nigra s.a. The herb layer contains species such as Calamagrostis arundinacea, Luzula luzuloides, Vaccinium myrtillus. According to the standard sheet the habitat conservation status is good, the total habitat area has a 23.9% coverage of territory.

9130 Asperulo – Fagetum beech forests: We find this habitat at altitudes between 300-800 m. The forest is made of beech or low horseradish, oak, cherry, maple, elm. The layer of shrubs consists of Corylus avellana, Crataegus monogyna, Evonymus europaeus. The herb layer contains species as Galium odoratum, Asarum europaeum, Carex pilosa. According to the standard sheet, the habitat conservation status is good, the total area of the habitat has a 0.4% coverage of the territory.

9410 Acidophile forests of Picea Abies from the mountain region (Vaccinio-Piceetea): It lies at altitudes between 1200-1800 m. Spruce is the absolute dominant species, often present alongside beech and white fir, ash, aspen, mountain maple. The shrubs layer is represented by blueberries, cranberry, and heather. The herb layer consists of flexible scabbard, sorrel and fern. According to the standard sheet, the habitat conservation status is good, the total area of the habitat has a coverage of 7.5% of the territory.

91E0 * Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae): Appear at altitudes of 800-1600 m. Here we meet ash, mountain maple, linden, beech, fir, yew. Among the shrubs we mention the horn, soft wool, black honeysuckle. On the herd layer we find the flyer, heartleaf oxeye, and the fragile rock fern. According to the standard sheet, the habitat conservation status is good, the total area of the habitat has a 0.1% territory coverage.

91V0 Dacian Beech forests Symphito – Fagion: Can be found at altitudes between 600-1400 m. The tree-layer is composed of spruce, beech, fir, maple, mountain elm. The layer of shrubs consists of Sambucus racemosa, Lonicera xylosteum, Daphne mezereum. The layer of herbs consists of mulberry species (Dentaria glandulosa, Galium odoratum). According to the standard sheet, the habitat conservation status is good, the total habitat area has a 48.4% coverage of the territory.

Due to the conditions of relief and geomorphologic conditions, this area is an important wintering, hibernation habitat for the brown bear (Ursus arctos). The other large carnivores with community interest are the wolf (Canis lupus) and bobcat (Lynx lynx). Of the species of bats with community interest, the small lesser horseshoe bat is present (Rhinolophus hipposideros). The species of amphibians are represented by the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata) and the crested newt (Triturus cristatus).

 

Species of Community Importance

 Triturus cristatus (Crested newt) is part of the Triturus genus of the Salamandridae family. It is a vulnerable species in certain areas even endangered. Reducing breeding sites has greatly affected this species, being pretentious than other species of tritons. It lives through the puddles and lakes of the plains to the sub-carpathian area, hidden among the aquatic plant stems. It enters the water in March and, depending on its level, it can stay until May-June. According to the standard sheet, the crested newt is in good conservation status at the Oituz-Ojdula site.

Bombina variegata (Yellow-bellied toad) is part of the Discoglossidae family. Characteristic of this species is the glandular secretion, which is extremely toxic. He lives mostly in standing waters, appearing on the shore in the morning and evening. It is among the first species of amphibians that occupy areas damaged by human activities (deforestation, road construction, etc.) where temporary ponds are formed. According to the standard sheet, the yellow-bellied toad is well conserved in the Oituz-Ojdula site.

Rhinolopus hipposideros, a bat from the rhinolophide family (Rhinolophidae), is the smallest of Rhinolophus species in Romania. It is found in the foothills, missing from the mountain. It lives in caves, abandoned mines, cellars, hollows. In Romania a decrease in its population is evident in recent years, mainly due to the destruction of the habitat, and the development of unorganized tourism. According to the standard sheet, the small horseshoe bat is well conserved in the Oituz-Ojdula site.

The Ursus arctos (Brown Bear) belongs to the Mammalia class, the Carnivora order, the Ursidae family. The brown bear in Romania belongs to the subspecies Ursus arctos arctos. It is a large carnivorous mammal, a plantigrade animal, footmarks can’t be confused with another animal because of their size. Both, the fore and aft legs have 5 fingers. According to the standard sheet, the bear is in good conservation status at the Oituz-Ojdula site.

The Canis lupus species (Wolf) belongs to the Mammalia class, the Carnivora order, the Canidae family. The wolf in Romania belongs to the subspecies Canis lupus lupus. It is a carnivorous mammal, a monogamous species, the pairs are formed from December to February when pairing takes place. The most developed senses are vision and hearing, but the smell is well developed. According to the standard sheet, the wolf is in good conservation status at the Oituz-Ojdula site.

The species Lynx lynx (Bobcat) belongs to the Mammalia class, the Carnivora order, the Felidae family. The bobcat in Romania belongs to Lynx lynx lynx subspecies. When he is scared or attacked, he puffs his opponent and growls like a cat, while pairing meows similar to cats. The most developed senses are vision and hearing. According to the standard sheet, bobcat is well conserved in the Oituz-Ojdula site.